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Cup of Heaven Coffee Glossary (D-F)

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Dark roast - Coffee roasted sufficiently enough to bring oils to the bean surface.

Decaffeinated coffee - Green coffee with at least 97% of its caffeine removed.

Degassing - The release of gases, mostly carbon dioxide, from freshly roasted coffee.

Dilution - Adding water to coffee during or after the brewing process to adjust the beverage strength or yield.

Direct contact - Chemicals (other than water) are used in decaffeination direct contact with green coffee beans to dissolve and extract caffeine. This method includes supercritical carbon dioxide.

Doppio - A double shot (4 oz.) of espresso.

Dry (unwashed) method - One of the methods of processing coffee cherries into green coffee. First, the whole coffee cherry is fully dried in the sun on large patios or in a mechanical dryer. Then the dried cherries are passed through a husker/huller, which removes the dried pulp and parchment covering.

Dry distillation - A method of measuring coffee's soluble solids by evaporating water from the coffee brew in an oven and weighing the remaining residue of coffee flavoring material.

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Earthy - The characteristic odor of fresh earth, wet soil or humus. Sometimes associated with moulds and reminiscent of raw potato flavor, considered as an undesirable flavor when perceived in coffee.

Economy blend - Least-expensive blend, usually served in feeding operations such as health care facilities and correctional institutions.

Espresso - A concentrated coffee beverage created by pressurized extraction from finely ground coffee that is usually dark roasted. Traditionally served in a demitasse (usually 1-2 ounce drink). Espresso is more concentrated than American coffee, but espresso beans actually have less caffeine because longer roasting times cook out some of the caffeine.

Espresso Con Panna - Espresso with a dollop of whipped cream.

Espresso Granita - Frozen espresso, crushed and served in a glass topped with whipped cream. American versions combine espresso, milk and sugar and then freeze the mixture in special dispensing machines. This is also know as a Granita Latte.

Espresso Ristretto - A "short pull" espresso, or an espresso made with half the water used for a regular espresso. Very stout. A doppio ristretto on Monday will see you through finals week -- maybe longer.

Espresso Romano - Espresso with a slice of lemon on the side. Espresso Macchiato: Espresso "marked" with a dash of milk or cream.

Ethyl acetate - A chemical that dissolves and extracts caffeine from green coffee beans, or from extracts of roasted ground coffee before their conversion to soluble form.

Extraction - The removal of coffee flavoring material from roasted and ground coffee through contact with water.

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Fermentation - The step in wet-method processing in which the mucilage is removed from the coffee by soaking the coffee in large tanks of water. Naturally present microorganisms decompose the mucilage.

Filter drip method - A brewing method in which hot water is poured over and flows through a bed of roasted and ground coffee contained in a paper, cloth, or metal filter.

Filtering methods - The method of separating coffee grounds from the brew using paper, cloth, or metal screens.

First-in/First out (FlFO) - Proper stock rotation arrangement with the oldest coffee "first in to storage" taken "first out of storage" to be brewed.

Flaking - Passing ground coffee between two flat rollers that squeeze coffee grounds into a flat shape.

Flavor - The combined sensation of aromatic and taste compounds perceived by the senses of smell and taste.

Flavor compounds - Organic and inorganic materials that either evaporate to create coffee's aromatic proper- ties or dissolve to form liquids, creating coffee's taste characteristics.

Flavored coffee - Roasted coffee that has been sprayed with oils and extracts, or dusted with powders, to add flavoring.

Floral - This aroma descriptor is similar to the fragrance of flowers. It is associated with the slight scent of different types of flowers including honeysuckle, jasmine, dandelion and nettles. It is mainly found when an intense fruity or green aroma is perceived but rarely found having a high intensity by itself.

Fragrance - The sensation of gases released from roasted coffee as aromatic compounds are inhaled through the nose.

Freeze-dried (coffee) - A soluble coffee prepared by freezing brewed - coffee (concentrate) in a vacuum chamber. This causes the water molecules to crystallize and separate from the coffee flavoring material, which becomes a solid mass.

French Roast - Very dark brown color with visible oils on the roast surface; bitter taste and pungent aromatics dominate flavor. Also known as New Orleans Roast.

Freshness - The retention of aromatic and taste characteristics attributed to proper selection of packaging materials and method, based on the expected length of time between roasting and brewing.

Fruity/Citrus - This aroma is reminiscent of the odor and taste of fruit. The natural aroma of berries is highly associated with this attribute. The perception of high acidity in some coffees is correlated with the citrus characteristic. Tasters should be cautioned not to use this attribute to describe the aroma of unripe or overripe fruit.

Full City Roast - Dark brown color with no traces of oil on bean surface; provides full coffee flavor development (caramel to chocolate-like) with some loss of coffee acidity.

Futures price - The price level for shipments of standard quality coffee, established on the floor of a futures exchange.

References: International Coffee Organization, National Coffee Association, Oregon Daily Emerald, and the Specialty Coffee Association.

 

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